What is ERC-20? A comprehensive guide
Unlike Bitcoin, Ethereum is an open-source project where developers can create and launch decentralized applications (DApps). Although there are many positives to the Ethereum network, it does have its issues. For instance, the network is prone to bottlenecks during peak times. As a result, transaction fees and wait times are relatively high. This led to the creation of ERC-20 (Ethereum Request for Comment 20) tokens.
The token standard was designed to increase efficiency and make building on the Ethereum blockchain easier.
What is an ERC-20 token?
ERC-20 tokens are sets of fungible digital tokens that reside on the Ethereum blockchain. This technical standard helps develop smart contracts on the blockchain, enabling developers to create and deploy tokens on Ethereum. The ERC-20 token standard is a series of rules developers must strictly follow to ensure that the tokens created and subsequently launched are compatible. This allows users and developers to become active participants in any service, application, or protocol on the Ethereum network.
Each ERC-20 token serves its purpose within the ecosystem and can be interchanged across Ethereum's network. The creation of this token standard streamlined the development phase, helping token creators interact between applications and tokens.
History of ERC-20 token standard
Fabian Vogelsteller initially proposed the idea of ERC-20 tokens. He submitted the proposal via Ethereum's GitHub page. He tagged an "Ethereum Request Comment", and it was assigned the number "20" because it was the 20th comment on the page. Following approval from the Ethereum developer's community, Vogelsteller's proposal was implemented under the name "Ethereum Improvement Proposal (EIP-20). However, it is known as ERC-20.
Since the proposal's implementation in 2015, smart contract tokens designed on the Ethereum blockchain must comply with the guidelines.
How ERC-20 tokens work
The ERC-20 token standard was designed to function with smart contracts or pre-arranged agreements that mechanically execute once definite conditions are met. Smart contracts enabled by the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) are similar to vending machines. They are programmed to undertake predetermined actions under certain situations. That is how ERC-20 tokens work.
Once instructions or guidelines are followed, ERC-20 tokens can be created and issued. They are fungible — one token is equal in value to another. These tokens not only allow a seamless exchange of assets, but they also confer governance rights to holders. And are a rewarding passive income source (staking).
Benefits of ERC-20 to the Ethereum network
The introduction of the ERC-20 token standard has proven to be a game-changer for Ethereum and the cryptocurrency market. Some of the benefits of ERC-20 tokens include the following:
Interoperability is a sticking point of the crypto industry. The inability to conveniently exchange assets across multiple chains makes the transfer process extremely complex, halting blockchain's global adoption. ERC-20 allows tokens that follow the guidelines to communicate and exchange assets effortlessly. If you own the ERC-20 token for a particular project, you can conveniently exchange it for another token for a different project.
Interoperability promotes communication, faster token transfers, and a cost-effective token exchange process.
Since ERC-20 tokens adhere to the same instructions and are built on Ethereum, they benefit from the network's security features, such as — decentralization, immutability, and transparency. These security features disable malicious users from manipulating the token supply, transfers, withdrawals, or validation process.
Like the blockchain, the underlying technology of ERC-20 tokens is transparent. All ERC-20 transaction details are recorded on the Ethereum blockchain, making it possible to track token movement easily.
It continues; it helps determine the authenticity of transactions and tokens, providing token owners and developers with a higher degree of security.
High liquidity means ERC-20 tokens can be bought and sold on centralized and decentralized exchanges. The availability makes these tokens a preferred choice for investors keen on profiting from the volatile nature of the crypto market.
Customizable and easy-to-use
Token creators or designers can customize tokens to serve and meet specific purposes. They can set the total token supply, add unique functions to the tokens, set decimal points, and pick a symbol.
In addition to seamless customization, ERC-20 tokens are incredibly easy to use. Tokens can be created and easily managed with tools like MetaMask, MyETherWallet, etc. The simplicity and exceptional availability make them accessible to users and developers, which promotes innovation within the ecosystem.
Cons of ERC-20 token standard
The ERC-20 token standard aims to increase compatibility and stability. However, it also limits functionality levels. For instance, ERC-20 tokens are unable to complete certain complex tasks. This poses a considerable concern for developers that require an additional level of flexibility for their tokens.
High transaction fees
Transacting ERC-20 tokens can be an expensive task. Gas fees are required to initiate and complete any transaction, and depending on the state of the Ethereum network, these gas fees can be too steep for the average user. The fluctuations in gas fees make it extremely difficult to predict the exact cost of transactions, dispelling the desire to own and transact these tokens, especially for low-income investors.
Absence of universal acceptance
Not every crypto exchange accepts ERC-20 tokens. While the token standard has garnered vast support, certain exchanges do not accept or list them on their platforms, thus limiting the token's liquidity.
Popular ERC-20 tokens
Since implementing the ERC-20 proposal from Fabian Vogelsteller, we've witnessed an influx of these tokens released into the market. These are some of the most popular ones:
Tether is a stablecoin that runs on the Ethereum blockchain as an ERC-20 token standard. It's designed to provide faster transaction throughput and cheaper transactions. According to the Tether website, the token is pegged to the U.S. dollar in a 1:1 ratio.
The team claims to achieve this ratio by holding an equivalent of the token in U.S. dollars in a separate, safe account. It is used to move funds across exchanges and has become one of the most popular trading pairs on centralized exchanges.
Uniswap is a decentralized crypto exchange (DEX) that runs as an ERC-20 token on the Ethereum network. $UNI — is an ERC-20 token and is the native currency of the DEX. It's also worth mentioning that Uniswap is powered by an automated market maker (AMM) model.
Unlike centralized exchanges, Uniswap has no order book or a centralized structure that sets trades.
Not only is BNB an ERC-20 token, but it is the native token of the reputable Binance centralized exchange. BNB serves several purposes in the Binance ecosystem.
The increased popularity of the BNB token has led to its increased availability and acceptance on various decentralized and centralized exchanges.
Other ERC token standards
ERC-20 is the most popular token standard. However, there are slightly less prominent ones that exist. They include:
- ERC-777: the ERC-777 standard enables an urgent recovery option if a user's private keys are missing. It also enhances the privacy and anonymity of transactions.
- ERC-721: this standard was designed to issue non-fungible tokens (NFTs). Since ERC-20 tokens cannot issue non-fungible assets as it is fungible, ERC-71 was proposed as an alternative.
- ERC-223: the ERC-223 standard was proposed as a viable solution to losing tokens sent to the wrong address. The ERC-223 standard allows you to retrieve tokens sent to incorrect addresses.
- ERC-1155: this token standard allows developers to create and launch more efficient transfer tokens. The ERC-1155 saves hundreds of dollars in transaction fees and is compatible with NFTs and utility tokens.
What does ERC-20 mean?
ERC-20 means Ethereum Request Comment, number 20. It is the technical standard for smart contract tokens created on the Ethereum blockchain.
What's the difference between ETH and ERC-20?
ETH or Ether is the native token on the Ethereum project and serves as a payment currency for validating transactions on the network. ERC-20, on the other hand, is a token standard for building smart contracts-powered tokens running on the Ethereum network.
Is ERC-20 the same as Ethereum?
No, ERC-20 is not the same as Ethereum. It is a technical token standard developers must follow to create and issue tokens on Ethereum.
Which is the most popular ERC-20 wallet?
There are dozens of prominent ERC-20 token wallets, but the OKX Wallet edges others as the most popular one at the moment.